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Vitamin B12: Functions, Sources, and Benefits.

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Numerous biological activities call on cobalamin, a water-soluble form of vitamin B12. It is classified as a member of the B vitamin group and holds significant importance in tasks such as creating red blood cells, supporting nerve function, synthesizing DNA, and aiding in the metabolism of proteins and lipids.

The liver stores vitamin B12, and the body can recycle it, helping to maintain adequate levels even in cases of temporary dietary deficiency.

Vitamin B12 is a cobalt-containing complex molecule that is necessary for a number of body processes. It comes from food sources, and its active forms are essential for DNA synthesis, red blood cell creation, and metabolic processes.

Symptoms and Health Risks of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Neurological and Developmental Risks: Pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficits may have a higher chance of giving birth to kids who have developmental problems such as brain development problems or malformed neural tubes. A vitamin B12 shortage in early children may cause neurological issues, slow growth, and developmental delays.

   – (peripheral neuropathy) Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet

   – Difficulty walking or maintaining balance

   – Muscle weakness

   – Memory problems and cognitive decline

   – Irritability, mood changes, and depression

   – Dementia-like symptoms in severe cases


A vitamin B12 shortage can result in megaloblastic anaemia, a kind of anaemia. Red blood cells are unable to carry out their normal duties because the body produces immature, abnormally large ones when this syndrome occurs. Shortness of breath, dizziness, pallor, weakness, and weariness are a few anaemia symptoms.

Digestive Problems

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People who don’t get enough vitamin B12 can get digestive problems such nausea, constipation, weight loss, and appetite reduction.

Fatigue and Weakness

Vitamin B12 is essential for the creation of energy. Weakness, exhaustion, and an overall lack of energy can result from deficiencies.

Obstacles During Pregnancy

Women who are pregnant and have vitamin B12 deficiencies may experience more challenges, including early birth and fetal neural tube abnormalities.

Pernicious Anemia

Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition where the body fails to produce intrinsic factor, a protein needed for Vitamin B12 absorption. Vitamin B12 deficiency and related symptoms may result from this.

Other Sources of vitamin B12 include

Vitamin B12 must be received from external sources such as supplements or food because the human body cannot manufacture it on its own. Vitamin B12 is a natural chemical found in several kinds of foods, such as: –

Poultry: Chicken and turkey are also decent sources of vitamin B12. opt for skinless cuts and avoid frying to maintain their nutritional value.

Eggs: The yolk of an egg contains vitamin B12, making eggs a suitable option for individuals who consume them.

Liver: Organ meats are incredibly nutrient-dense and contain significant amounts of vitamin B12, particularly beef liver.

Red Meat: Beef, pork, and lamb are all superior sources of vitamin B12. Prefer to limit saturated fat intake by choosing lean cuts of these meats.

Fortified Foods: Many breakfast cereals, plant-based milk substitutes (such as soy milk and almond milk), and nutritional yeast have vitamin B12 added. The product labels list the particular amounts.

Shellfish and Algae-Based Supplements: For individuals following a vegan or vegetarian diet, certain supplements derived from shellfish or algae can provide vitamin B12.

Yeast Extract Spreads: Some yeast extract spreads, such as Marmite and Vegemite, are fortified with vitamin B12 and can be a source of this nutrient for vegans and vegetarians.

General health and well-being can Benefit from Vitamin B12

Nervous System Support: Vitamin B12 is essential for maintaining a healthy nervous system. It aids in the production of myelin, a protective sheath that surrounds nerves and facilitates efficient nerve signal transmission. By supporting the health of the nervous system, Vitamin B12 helps maintain proper cognitive function, memory, and overall neurological health.

Support for a Healthy Pregnancy

Vitamin B12 is essential for expecting mothers since it aids in the fetus’s growth and development. Early in a pregnancy, effective neural tube development depends on getting enough vitamin B12. It also causes the production of red blood cells, which are essential for both the mother and the developing kid.

Cellular Health

Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and cell division. The growth, development, and repair of bodily tissues depend on healthy cell division. Vitamin B12 improves general health and aids in maintaining the integrity of different organ systems by supporting these cellular functions.

Immune System

Vitamin B12 is necessary for immune cell growth and activation. It encourages the immune system’s optimal functioning, which is crucial for defending the body against diseases and infections. By keeping vitamin B12 levels adequate, one may support a robust immune response and overall immunological function.

Supports Red Blood Cell Production

Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells. Sufficient Vitamin B12 levels help prevent megaloblastic anemia, a condition characterized by enlarged and ineffective red blood cells. By supporting red blood cell production, Vitamin B12 helps ensure optimal oxygen transport throughout the body, promoting energy and vitality.

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Having healthy hair, skin, and nails may be possible because to vitamin B12’s role in cell renewal and reproduction processes. The maintenance of these physical traits and protection from diseases like hair loss, dry skin, and brittle nails are both aided by adequate vitamin B12 levels.

Also Read: ​​Surprising Benefits of Plant-Based Vitamin B12 Nobody Told You

Vitamin B12 supplements are available in several forms, including:

Sublingual (under the tongue) supplements: Sublingual vitamin B12 supplements are small dissolvable tablets or lozenges that are placed under the tongue and absorbed directly into the bloodstream. This method bypasses the digestive system and can be useful for people with absorption issues.

Injections: In severe cases of Vitamin B12 deficiency or pernicious anemia, healthcare professionals may administer Vitamin B12 injections. These are usually given intramuscularly (into the muscle) and provide a direct and efficient way of delivering Vitamin B12 into the body.

Tablets and Capsules: The most common form of Vitamin B12 supplementation is oral tablets or capsules. They can be easily taken with water and are widely accessible. Tablets and capsules are available in different strengths like 500mcg, 1000mcg or more.

Vitamin B12 supplement dosage varies depending on the individual’s demands and the severity of the insufficiency. The following guidelines for dose are general: –

Oral supplements: 250 to 1000 mcg (0.25 to 1 mg) is the range for typical daily dosages. For severe deficiencies or specific medical problems, higher doses may be given.

Sublingual supplements: Dosages are commonly between 500 mcg and 5,000 mcg (0.5 mg to 5 mg) per day due to absorption variance.

For injections: Healthcare professionals determine the appropriate dosage and frequency of injectiaons based on individual needs.


Vitamin B12 is essential for a variety of biological processes, such the production of red blood cells, neuron function, DNA synthesis, and metabolism. It is generally found in animal-derived meals, although for vegetarians and vegans, fortified plant-based choices are available. Vitamin B12 shortage can cause a variety of health problems, emphasising the necessity of getting enough. Some people may require supplementation or dietary changes. Individuals can promote their general health and well-being by learning the functions, sources, and advantages of Vitamin B12.


  1. Which fruit is rich in vitamin B12?

    Fruits are typically not thought of as important sources of vitamin B12. Meat, fish, and dairy items are abundant in vitamin B12. If you’re seeking for plant-based sources, fortified plant-based milk replacements or breakfast cereals may contain trace quantities of Vitamin B12.

  2. Which veg food is rich in B12?

    Plant-based eating habits are often low in Vitamin B12. However, some fortified foods like plant-based milk alternatives, breakfast cereals, and nutritional yeast contain added Vitamin B12. These fortified options can help vegetarians and vegans meet their B12 needs.

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